Michael Arthur Newdow
(born June 24, 1953) is an American
attorney and emergency medicine physician
. He is best known for his efforts to have recitations of the current version of the Pledge of Allegiance
in public schools in the United States declared unconstitutional
because of its inclusion of the phrase "under God". He also filed and lost a lawsuit to stop the invocation prayer at President Bush's second inauguration and in 2009 he filed a lawsuit to prevent references to God and religion from being part of President Obama's inauguration.