In the course of his Gallic Wars
, Julius Caesar
twice: in 55 and 54 BC. The first invasion, in late summer, may have been intended as a mere reconnaissance-in-force expedition, or as a full-scale invasion—but if it was an invasion, it was unsuccessful. It gained the Romans little else besides a beachhead on the coast of Kent
. The second invasion achieved more: the Romans installed a king, Mandubracius
, who was friendly to Rome, and they forced the submission of Mandubracius's rival, Cassivellaunus
. No territory was conquered and held for Rome; instead, all Roman-occupied territory was restored to the allied Trinovantes
, along with the promised tribute of the other tribes in what is now eastern England.